Thermoplastic resins are divided into two groups: amorphous and crystalline.
Amorphous resins typically melt over a wide temperature range and have superior toughness, impact resistance, and damage tolerance. The high-volume amorphous resins include:
- HDPE: high-density polyethylene
- PP: polypropylene
- PET: polyethylene terthalate
- PC: poly carbonate
The higher-performance (higher melt temperature) amorphous resins include:
- PES: poly ether sulfone
- PPSU: polyphenylene sulfone
- PEI: polyetherimide
Crystalline and semicrystalline resins typically have a sharp melt point and a lower melt viscosity than amorphous resins. Because of the crystalline structure they are usually stiffer and stronger than amorphous resins. The principal crystalline resins are:
- PA: Polyamides (nylon) 6, 66, 11, 12
- PPS: Polyphenylene sulfide
- PEK: Polyether ketone
- PEEK: Polyether ether ketone
Types of Fibers
- Carbon is stiff, relatively light and very strong in tensile. It is not as strong in compression
- Glass is the most economical of the frequently used fibers It is better than carbon in compression and would be the choice for repetitive stress cycling.
- Aramid is the lightest of the frequently used fibers. It has greater elongation at break and it resists wear. Moisture cycling can degrade a laminate made with aramid fiber.
Continuous fiber reinforcement (CFR) provides the greatest strength and stiffness. We also use some long fiber (.25" - 1")
- Woven fabrics allow different glass formulas and different weave patterns to provide different characteristics such as strength, drape, and directionality.
- Non-wovens are usually made with long fiber with random orientation.
- Stitch-bonded can be very stiff because fibers lay flat and straight and are held in place by the stitching. This may make a balanced construction more difficult.
- Knitted can produce a very resilient fabric. It is often stabilized with stitching.
- Uni-directional has all of the fibers running in one direction. The fibers are stabilized either with resin or stitching.
Available Thermoplastic Resin-Substrate Combinations
Polyether ether ketone
|Other||We believe we can work with
any thermoplastic resin.
- Tailored properties include variable axis reinforcement (0, 90, +/- 45), reinforcement type (glass, carbon, etc.), resin content or fiber volumes.
- High pressure consolidation yields very low void content, optimum density.
Effects of Continuous Fiber Reinforcement
Continuous fiber reinforcement (CFR) increases the performance of thermoplastic resins to levels unheard of in neat resins.